Location: Black Sea coast
Area: 69,700 sq. Km
Population: 3.7 million people
National composition: Georgians 70%, Armenians 6%, Turks 6%, Russians – Ukrainians 6.5%, Azerbaijanians 2%, Ossetians 3%, Greeks 2 %, Abkhazians 1.5%
State language: Georgian
Religion: orthodox Christians 65%, Muslims 11%, Catholics 8%
Time: Equals to Moscow, and hours are not translated
Electricity: 220 V AC, 50 A; standard socket of double plug
Internet zone: .ge
International dialing code: +995
Currency: GEL (GEL)
The Republic of Georgia is in the southeast of Europe and occupies the central and western part of Transcaucasia. Borders in the north with Russia, in the east with Azerbaijan, in the south with Armenia and Turkey. In the west it is washed by the Black Sea. The territory of Georgia is mainly mountainous, more than a third is covered by dense forests. In the north, the border with Russia runs along the main mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains, where the highest points of the country are located, the highest of which is Mount Shkhara (5,068 m). The small Caucasian ridge passes through the south of Georgia, here the highest points do not exceed 3000 meters.
The nature of Georgia is extremely diverse due to its geographical location, complex terrain and high altitude zoning. The Caucasus region, in which Georgia is located, belongs to the mobile alpine belt of the earth’s crust, which determines its contrasting terrain and diverse landscapes with many different types of climate, hydrological regime, soil cover, vegetation and fauna. In addition, Georgia is at the junction of the humid Mediterranean, the drainless Aral-Caspian depression and the continental Upper Asian uplands, which also determines the diversity of its natural conditions.
The northern part of the country is occupied by the mountain system of the Greater Caucasus (Caucasus) with altitudes up to 4500-5000 m above sea level. In the watershed of the Central Caucasus there are well-known passes – Krestovy (2384 m) and Mamison (2829 m). The highland part of the Caucasus is characterized by glaciers, in the west – karst phenomena, and in the east – young volcanic forms. In total there are more than 600 glaciers in Georgia with a total area of 520 km ². The largest glaciers are located in Svaneti. In the south of the country there are middle mountain ranges of the Lesser Caucasus (up to 2850 m high), between the Great and Lesser Caucasus is the Colchis lowland, which has the form of a triangle with a base facing the Black Sea, and in the east – the Iverian basin, where the Kura River flows. The Colchis lowland barely rises above sea level. To the east, it gradually rises to 150 m. It is in Colchis,
In the extreme south of Georgia is the South Georgian (Javakheti) volcanic highlands, which are characterized by lava plateaus, chains of volcanoes and canyon-like river gorges. The highest point of the highlands is the Didi-Abuli mountain, 3301 m.
The main minerals are manganese ores (Chiatura), hard coal (Tkibuli), small oil reserves. One of the main natural resources is numerous mineral and thermal springs. Up to 50 resorts have been created on the basis of mineral springs.
The climate of Georgia depends on the subtropical influence from the west and the Mediterranean influences from the East. The main Caucasian ridge with a temperate climate acts as a barrier against cold air from the north. Warm, moist air from the Black Sea easily moves to the coastal lowland from the west. The climatic zone is determined by the distance from the Black Sea and the height. In the Colchis Valley, the subtropical climate with high humidity and heavy precipitation is dominant (from 1000 to 2000 mm, or 39.4 to 78.7 per year, the Black Sea port of Batumi receives 2500 mm or 98.4 per year). The average temperature in this region is: in winter +5 ° C, in summer +22 ° C.
The plains of Eastern Georgia are protected from the Black Sea by mountains that provide them with a more continental climate. winter temperature averages + 2-4 ° C, summer + 20-24 ° C,. Humidity is lower, and the amount of precipitation averages from 500 to 800 mm (19.7 to 31.5) per year. Alpine and high-mountain regions in the east and west, as well as a semi-arid region on the Iori plateau to the southeast, have different microclimate. Alpine conditions start at about 2,100 m above sea level, and over 3,600 m snow and ice are present all year round. Snow falls mainly in mountainous areas in November and does not melt until the end of spring.
The climate of Georgia is favorable for year-round recreation and treatment, nature pampers with a constant abundance of fresh fruits and vegetables, which is especially important for visitors of northern regions and territories with unfavorable ecology.
Georgia is famous for its mineral springs. On the territory of the country there are 22 main sources of mineral waters, the most famous of which are Zvare, Sairme, Nabeglavi, Borjomi, etc. Georgia supplies its medicinal mineral water to more than 25 countries.
Orthodox Christianity (Georgia – one of the first countries that adopted Christianity as a state religion in 337 AD), a very tolerant attitude towards other religions, there are Muslims, Catholics, etc.
The only state language in Georgia is the Georgian language. To communicate with foreigners, English is accepted. The majority of the population understands and speaks Russian well.
Internal flights connect Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi and Mestia. Railway communication is established between Tbilisi, Gori, Kutaisi, Borjomi, Khashuri, Batumi, Ureki, Kobuleti. Intercity buses and shuttle buses can be reached in any city in Georgia, which you will need. In Tbilisi, public transport is represented by metro, buses and minibuses. The journey in the minibuses costs 80 tetri, in the metro, and for buses – 50 tetri. Taxis can be called by phone or stopped on the street.
The locals are very hospitable and are always ready to help guests, suggest and orient the country. Smoking in public places is prohibited.
Tourists are allowed to photograph various attractions and other places of interest in Georgia, except for airports, railway stations, metro, military facilities and some Orthodox churches. Your guide will definitely explain to you that you can take pictures and what not. You can buy all necessary equipment in any corner of Georgia.
Shops are open from 10:00 to 20:00, and many – around the clock. Markets work from 6: 00-7: 00 to 16: 00-18: 00 without days off. From Georgia, as a gift, you can bring pottery, embroidery, handmade gold and silverware, local wine, chacha and brandy, clay products for every taste (jugs, dishes and many others).