Useful Information – ARMENIA


Capital: Yerevan
Time: 1 hour ahead of Moscow
Electricity: Voltage 220 V, frequency 50 Hz
Tipping: In high-class establishments, if the service charge is not included in the bill, you can leave 10% or more of the amount. In other places you can leave change. Waiters and doormen in restaurants can be given a tip in advance
Emergency telephones: Emergency service – 120, fire service – 122, police – 133, ambulance – 144


Armenia is located to the south of Russia, in Transcaucasia, in the northeast of the volcanic Armenian highland, between the Caspian (75 km) and the Black (145 km) seas. The area of ​​the country is about 30,000 square meters. km. From the south-west Armenia has the longest border with Turkey and Iran, in the east it borders with Azerbaijan, in the north – with Georgia. The relief is predominantly mountainous, with few forests and fast rivers. This is the most high-mountainous country in the Transcaucasian region. Only 3% of its territory is below the 700 m mark. Almost the entire territory of Armenia is located on mountain plateaus, at an altitude of 1-2.5 km above sea level – the Vardenis, Pambak, Gegham, Zangezur ranges separated by a complex web of deep gorges, rivers and valleys. The highest point is Mount Aragats (4097 m), the lowest – the Araks River valley (380 m). The famous Mount Ararat – the country’s highest peak and its historical symbol – has belonged to Turkey since the 1920s. In the south-west of Armenia lies the Ararat valley, where the majority of the population lives and large cities are located. The country is divided into 11 provinces; there are 48 cities and 953 villages


The best time to travel to Armenia is from the second half of May to the middle of October. Armenia is located in the subtropical belt, between the two seas – the Caspian and the Black, but this has no influence on the climate of the country, as it is surrounded by the massive mountain ranges of the central Lesser Caucasus. It is mountains, or rather, features of the landscape of Armenia that form the nature of the local climate: diverse and at times unpredictable. At an altitude of more than 1 km above sea level, 90% of the country’s territory lies, therefore, the distribution of heat is mainly dependent on the altitude of the terrain: even between two neighboring areas, the temperature difference can reach 3 ° C.
Under the influence of the subtropical climate is the southern part of Armenia, namely the Meghri Gorge, the Ararat Valley and the border areas in the northeast; in other areas the climate is continental. This means a short rainy spring, a sunny hot summer (+ 24-30 ° C), a long warm autumn and a fairly cold, albeit short, winter, when frosts to -20 ° C occur. For example, in the highland Gyumri the winters differ little from the Moscow ones.
In the foothills and plains of Armenia, the average temperature in winter is about +5 ° C, in mountainous regions from +2 to -14 ° C. The average temperature in the summer differs only in the mountains, where it is always cooler, + 12-24. It should be borne in mind that for every 200 meters up the temperature drops by 1 degree. Nights in the mountains, even in the middle of summer, are very cool; fluctuations in day and night temperatures can reach 15 ° C.
Depending on the height, precipitation is distributed, up to 800 mm. a year in the mountains. Most rains occur in the spring month of May, less in the second half of the summer. Winters in Armenia, mostly snowless, except for the highlands. The peaks of the mountain slopes above 3000 m are covered all year round with white snow caps


The diversity of natural and climatic conditions and the complex relief predetermine the richness of the plant and animal worlds of Armenia. There are over three thousand species of plants, about 500 species of mammals and birds and thousands of species of invertebrates. Among the vegetation, shrubs and herbs of semidesert, alpine zones prevail. Forests are rare, mostly in the mountains, above 0.5 km above sea level. Among the trees prevail pine, oak, hornbeam, ash, beech, maple, linden; in abundance there are wild apple trees, pears, dogwood, cherries, cherry plums, walnuts. In the southern part of the country, where the subtropical climate prevails, lemons, oranges, olives, pistachios, almonds grow.
Among the animals, rodents, reptiles and birds, in Armenia there is a huge number of species characteristic of the steppe and semi-desert zones: hares, foxes, nutria, jackals, steppe cats, lynxes, wild boars, wolves, badgers; Tortoise, snake, jerboa, ground squirrel; eagles, hawks, cranes, ducks, vultures, storks, partridges, quails, seagulls. Lake Sevan is famous for commercial fish, among which one can distinguish the famous Sevan trout – “ihshan”. The tenth part of the territory of the Republic of Armenia belongs to the nature protection zones: there are 23 state reserves, 2 national parks and 3 reserves. The largest of them are Sevan and Dilijan national parks, Erebouni, Khosrov, Shikahogsky


The approximate population of Armenia today is about three million people, of which 1/3 of the rural population and 2/3 of the city; about 1.6 million men and 1.7 million women. Along with this, the number of the Armenian diaspora around the world, who left their homeland during the genocide, reaches ten million inhabitants.
The composition of the population in Armenia is monoethnic: about 97% of Armenians live here and only 3% of other nationalities, among which are Yezidis, Kurds, Assyrians, Russians, Greeks, Azerbaijanis.


Armenian is the official language in Armenia, but more than half of the population speaks and understands Russian, local dialects are also common. The Armenian language belongs to the ancient branch of the Indo-European languages, and now it is used only in divine services. For a long time, Armenians used Syrian, Greek, Assyrian languages; in particular, they were used for writing. The modern Armenian alphabet appeared in 405. thanks to the monk and prominent scientist of his time, Mesrop Mashtots. And today in Armenia, on the eastern slope of Mount Aragats, there is a monument to the Armenian alphabet, unique in the world, representing all 39 letters carved from stone


Since 301 AD, the official religion in Armenia is Christianity, and this is the first state in the world to adopt the Christian faith. The Armenian Constitution prescribes freedom of religion. In addition to the Armenian Apostolic Church, there are representatives of other faiths, including the Russian Orthodox Church, Jews, Muslims and other religious minorities. There were almost no representatives of Islam in Armenia, most of them were Azerbaijanis and Kurds who fled the country after the Karabakh conflict.
The Armenian Apostolic Church differs from the Russian Orthodox Church: the schism occurred back in the 5th century, when representatives of the Armenian Church, due to riots in the country, could not attend the Fourth Ecumenical Council (Chalcedon), where representatives of Christianity from all over the world gathered and made key decisions. For example, the Ecumenical Councils made decisions regarding the interpretation of biblical texts, the procedure for conducting worship services and rituals, choosing a calendar, etc. As a result, the Armenian Apostolic Church did not recognize the decisions of the 4th Ecumenical Council, and in fact separated from both the Western and the Eastern Church.
The Armenian Church still recognizes Monophysite, that is, exclusively divine, incarnation of Christ; whereas the Orthodox declined to the Diophisite incarnation of Christ: both as a man and as a god. The head of the Armenian Church is the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos, whose residence is located in Echmiadzin, the spiritual center of Armenia. The remaining differences are in the difference in the conduct of certain rites and ceremonies, which, in fact, does not in the least contradict the basic postulates of Christianity, and does not prevent Orthodox Christians from visiting Armenian churches and services. Almost all the temples of Armenia will be interesting to visit even with an excursion purpose, as they are the most ancient unique monuments of architecture

Holidays and non-working days

A special color of the peculiar customs and traditions of Armenia is most fully manifested during the holidays – church, state, national. As in other countries of the world, some international holidays are celebrated here, while others are dedicated to national memory days and the most important events in the history of Armenia.

Official non-working days:
– From December 31 to January 2 – New Year’s Eve
– January 6 – Christmas
– January 28 – the day of the Army, is celebrated since 1992 in honor of the foundation of the Armenian Defense Ministry
– March 8 – International Women’s Day
– April 7 – Maternity and Beauty Day, dedicated to the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary
– April 24 – Day of Remembrance of the Victims of the Armenian Genocide, carried out by the Ottoman Empire
– May 1 – celebrated since 1890 as a day of international solidarity of workers
– May 9 – Day of Victory and Peace, in memory of the soldiers of the Second World War, who fought against fascism in the armed forces of the Soviet Union
– May 28 – Day of the First Republic; is celebrated since 1918, when the Armenian independent statehood was restored
– July 5 – Constitution Day
– September 21 – Independence Day
– The 14th Sunday after Easter celebrates one of the favorite holidays in Armenia – Vardavar. In addition, non-working days often include the commemoration day of the deceased, following a major religious or national holiday, such as:
– January 7, the day after Christmas
– April 9, the first Monday after Easter
– July 16, the first Monday after Vardavar
– August 16, the first Monday after the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary
– September 17, the first Monday after Khachverats

Currency exchange

National currency – Armenian dram (inter: AMD) In ​​circulation, in addition to coins of denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 AMD, there are bills of 1000 and 5000, as well as 10,000, 20,000, 50000, 100000 drams. Along with the national currency, US dollars are common in Armenia. The exchange rate depends on the US dollar.
Cash – Russian rubles, dollars – can be exchanged in numerous exchange offices, many of which work around the clock, including holidays and weekends. Many large hotels and banks accept Eurocheques. Banks are open from Monday to Friday, from 9: 00-9: 30 mostly until 17:00, some later. In all international hotels, in many restaurants and shops, you can pay by credit card major international payment systems, like Visa, American Express, Master Card; and this operation most often provides for a commission. It should be emphasized that a credit card or traveler’s checks can be useful only in large cities, in many regions of Armenia they will simply be useless


To visit Armenia, Russian citizens do not need a visa, and the citizens of the CIS have the right to visa-free entry: Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Georgia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova and Uzbekistan. In addition, since 2013 visa-free entry is secured for citizens of the European Union and Schengen.
Citizens of other states receive a visa to enter the country at the invitation of the consular establishment or the diplomatic representation of Armenia. The exception is foreigners of Armenian nationality and citizens of Syria, China, India, Egypt, who are entitled to receive a visa without an invitation. The validity of the passport must expire not earlier than 90 days after the return from Armenia