Ossetia (/ɒˈsɛtiə/[1] Ossetic: Ир, Ирыстон IrIryston; Russian: Осе́тия, Osetiya; Georgian: ოსეთი, Oset’i) is an ethnolinguisticregion located on both sides of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, largely inhabited by the Ossetians. The Ossetian language is part of the Eastern Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages family. The Ossetian-speaking area south of the main Caucasus ridge is recognized by most countries as within the borders of Georgia, but under the control of the Russian-backed de facto government of the Republic of South Ossetia. The northern portion of the region consists of the republic of North Ossetia–Alania within the Russian Federation.

  • 1774 — Ossetia becomes part of the Russian Empire[4]

  • 1801 — Area of the modern-day South Ossetia, belonging to Prince Machabeli within the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, becomes part of the Russian Empire, like rest of Kartli-Kakheti region of Georgia.[5]

  • 1922 — Creation of South Ossetia in Kartli, renaming of Ossetia into North Ossetia. North Ossetia remains a part of Russian SFSR, South Ossetia remains a part of Georgian SSR.

  • 20 September 1990 — Independent Republic of South Ossetia. The republic remained unrecognized, yet it detached itself from Georgia de facto. In the last years of the Soviet Union, ethnic tensions between Ossetians and Georgians in Georgia’s former Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia (abolished in 1990) and between Ossetians and the Ingush in North Ossetia evolved into violent clashes that left several hundred dead and wounded and created a large tide of refugees on both sides of the border.[6][7]

Although a Russian-mediated and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe-monitored ceasefire was implemented in South Ossetia in 1992, the Georgian-Ossetian conflict still remains unresolved even though a recent peace plan proposed by the government of Georgia promised the South Ossetians larger autonomy and pledged expanded international involvement in the political settlement of the conflict. Meanwhile, the South Ossetian secessionist authorities demand independence or unification with North Ossetia under the Russian Federation while the international community refuses to recognize South Ossetia as an independent country and considers the area part of Georgia.